The genetics of the strawberry refer to the study of the inheritance and variation of traits in different varieties and cultivars of the strawberry plant, Fragaria ananassa. The strawberry genome has been sequenced and is estimated to have about 35,000 genes.
Strawberry plants are perennial and reproduce sexually by cross-pollination. The plants have diploid chromosomes, with 2 copies of each chromosome, and the fruit is the swollen tip of the stem, with seeds embedded in its outer surface. The fruit exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity, as it is the result of the fusion of two gametes from different parents.
There are many cultivars of strawberries that have been developed for fruit production, including June-bearing, everbearing, and day-neutral types. These cultivars differ in their flowering and fruiting habits, as well as their fruit size, flavor, and texture.
Breeding programs for strawberries aim to improve yield, disease resistance, fruit quality, and other traits. Traditional breeding methods include selecting and crossing plants with desirable traits, while newer techniques involve biotechnology, such as gene editing and genetic engineering.
Overall, the genetics of the strawberry are complex, and there is still much to learn about the inheritance and variation of traits in this important fruit crop.